What is Stuttering and Stammering?

It is Speech Disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted (break), Stuttering is also known as stammering. Stuttering and Stammering both are different words but describe the same thing. Speech is disrupted means involuntary repetitions and delay of sounds, syllables, words or phrases, silent pauses or blocks, who stutters they are unable to produce clear sounds. Who stutter they have abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, Usually they face problem to speak vowels and semivowels words. Repetition is the primary problem. This connect the fears of sound to specific vowels and consonants, anxiety, Shame, stress, self-imposed isolation.

Stuttering is not a physical problem to production of sounds or putting thoughts in words. Nervousness and stress do not causes of stuttering but we can say trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder. The disorder is also variable, means that in certain situation, like talking on the telephone or in a group and during a presentation to a large crowd.

This speech disorder affects less than 1% of all adults, Mostly this problem occurs in children when they learning to speak. For this problem some kind of professional help available such as speech therapy.

Symptoms/signs

A person who stutters they repeats words or phrases,they have problems to starts some words (some may vowels and semivowels, consonants , they may blink rapidly.

The main symptom is they want to say some words when their mouths are correct position to say the words, but virtually no sound comes out.

Here some common signs and symptoms :-

  1. Repeating a sounds, words and phrases.
  2. Hesitation
  3. Problems starting a words and sounds
  4. Rapid blinking
  5. Trembling lips
  6. Trembling jaw
  7. The face and upper body tightens

Characteristics

Now I discussed some main characteristics of Stuttering and Stammering :-

A.   Primary behaviors

 Repeating sounds, words or phrases, silent blocks and delay of sound. These differ from the normal speakers, for produce the words and phrases they effort and strain. For example :- “on on on a chair”, “ c c cold”, mmmm.

B.   Variability

 Like public speaking and speaking on telephone, they are greatly feared who suffer stuttering problem.

Causes

No single cause of stuttering and stammering, experts are not completely sure what is main cause but some genetic problem and it always arises from repetition of sounds or words, sometimes it include physical trauma. When the signals are not working between nerves and muscles are not working properly, and adults also affect after a brain injury. Here some causes of stuttering :

  1. Stroke
  2. Head trauma
  3. Block of blood flow to the brain
  4. Tumors

Diagnosis

Stuttering is diagnosis by the DSM-5 diagnostic codes through clinical psychologists with expertise.

Psychological factors:- It make stuttering worses for people who already stutter. In other words anxiety, nervousness, and stress do not causes of stuttering.

Treatment

Several treatments are available for individuals to control their speech. First learning strategies minimize stuttering through speed deficiency, breathing regulation, and speech language pathologists teach people who stutter to control and monitor the rate at which they speak.

Some therapy for control the stuttering and stammering :-

  • Fluency shaping therapy
  • Modification therapy
  • Electronic fluency therapy
  • Medications
  • Support
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